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By Kathleen M. Swaim

Before and After the Fall explores for the 1st time that greatly diversified ideas and epistemologies that govern the unfallen and fallen universes in Paradise Lost. From Kathleen Swaim's unique examinations of the visits and directions of the angelic messengers Raphael and Michael emerges a brand new realizing of the contrasting mental and religious stipulations sooner than and after the autumn. The publication provides an in-depth comparability of the pedagogy, common sense, poetics, and school psychology of the 2 archangels in the context of Milton's prose works, particularly his textbook The artwork of Logic, his pamphlet Of Education, and his theological treatise Christian Doctrine. simply because Milton intentionally deployed Raphael and Michael for reasons of such distinction, Swaim's thorough exam of the content material and motive of those significant characters the six books of Paradise Lost within which they seem permits her to supply new views almost always epic's layout and topics.

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In man's first state of obedience, goodness, and freedom, God "furnished him with whatever was calculated to make life happy" (113). In Eden ''it was the disposition of man to do what was right, as a being naturally good and holy'' (115). Made in the image of God, man there had "implanted and innate in him" "the whole law of nature," "which is sufficient of itself to teach whatever is agreeable to right reason, that is to say, whatever is intrinsically good" (11517). Such "perfect Diapason" is jarred by sin, disobedience to divine command, and transgression of the law and conscience.

83031). The two documents underscore the lapsarian contrasts of the present study, with Of Education establishing the pedagogical methods and goals from and toward which Raphael works, and Areopagitica recognizing the conditions for learning "as therefore the state of man now is" (p. 728), learning for a fallen humanity addressing a divided and delusive world of postlapsarian experience. Milton's practical and methodically ordered educational tractate proposes a program of studies, exercise, and diet to insure the physical, intellectual, political, and spiritual well-being of his pupils.

For Raphael and Beatrice, who function in the relation of more or less equals with their pupils, the atmosphere is of leisure, effortless ascent, and expansion of tone and of universe. For Virgil and Michael, however, who function in the relation of superiors to their inferior pupils, the atmosphere is of urgency, difficult progress, and compression. 4 Hawkins, too, draws a distinction between prelapsarian nourishment and postlapsarian cure. Although they are not generally recognized as lapsarian dichotomies, as many commentators on his work have pointed out, Milton tends to deal in dichotomous structures of art and thought.

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