Download Assessment and Autonomy in Language Learning by Carol J. Everhard, Linda Murphy (eds.) PDF

By Carol J. Everhard, Linda Murphy (eds.)

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Vous êtes corse de coeur, d'origine ou d'adoption ? Vous voulez découvrir l'île de Beauté, que les Grecs appelaient déjà Kallisté (la plus belle) ? Vous voulez comprendre une région qui peut paraître de top abord compliquée ? Vous pensez déjà l. a. connaître ? Vous le croyez vraiment ? Pourtant, même les Corses le reconnaissent : on n'a jamais fini de découvrir cette île, qui regorge d'histoires, de mystères et d'aventures.

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Extra info for Assessment and Autonomy in Language Learning

Sample text

Reflection as the glue in the assessment-autonomy relationship The present chapter concludes with a consideration of reflection as the key element which binds together assessment and autonomy. A recurring theme in the autonomy literature, and the assessment literature, for that matter, has been that of reflection. Dam and Little (1998) see reflection as lying at the heart not only of language learning but of education in general. They regard it as a useful skill which can be cultivated gradually and which learners will also be able to apply in other aspects of their lives.

Henner-Stanchina and Holec (1977, p. 75) assert that learning cannot take place without evaluation, which they see as both ‘internal’ and ‘integral’, so that learners know how or what to modify or whether to continue with their learning in the same vein. Henner-Stanchina and Holec see it as altogether different from traditional assessment because it is not comparative, norm-referenced or other-referenced (1977, p. 79). What exactly Transmission of knowledge; linear process; predefined content, facts, ideas and skills Passive recipient of information; transfer of knowledge from teacher to learners; focus on content and product Emphasis on teacher’s authority; providing mainly frontal instruction; professionalism as individual autonomy Amotivation or extrinsic motivation Summative; product-oriented: achievement testing; criterionreferencing (and norm-referencing) Regulation by others; dependence on authoritative and more knowledgeable others HETERONOMY Nature of knowledge Learners and learning Teachers and teaching Motivation Assessment Overall outcome DEGREE OF AUTONOMY INTERDEPENDENCE Sharing of regulation; mutual guidance and direction; co-operation Formative or collaborative assessment; internalization of feedback; transparency of criteria, which may be selected by learners Balance of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation Shared ownership and responsibility; scaffolding provided when needed; collaborative development and construction of meaning Negotiation with teacher and other learners; shared ownership, responsibility and development of learning plan Collaborative identification of what learners need to know; co-operative exploration Student-centred; shared control; co-operation among peers; scaffolding TRANSACTION APPROACH AUTONOMY Self-regulation; higher order thinking; self-knowledge; use of internal and external resources, human and material Sustainable; process-oriented: reflection on process, self-assessment and peerassessment; personal monitoring; criterion-referencing; feedforward Intrinsic motivation derived from curiosity, passion, interest Teacher as facilitator and learner among learners; facilitator of learning (largely in small groups); collaborative professionalism Active participation in co-operative groups; emphasis on process: learning skills, self-inquiry, strategic learning, social and communication skills; meaning-making Transformation of knowledge; construction of personal knowledge; personal identification of needs Community of learners; emphasis on learners who establish own goals and targets and choose own materials and pace of learning TRANSFORMATION APPROACH Source: Based on Berry and Sahlberg (1996), Brody, with Hill (1991), Everhard (2013a), Kohonen (1992) and Nunan (1997, 2000).

Such a perspective enables the learner to become ‘his own critic’ and thus perceive and identify areas of weakness. This also enables the learner to make ‘informed’ choices, to plan and formulate goals, and thus progress from what is known to what is new. Kohonen (1992, p. 37) also feels that the encouragement of reflection on the learning experience proves invaluable for the learner in that it satisfies the need to be ‘both an actor and an observer of his or her own learning’. Sougari (1999, p.

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