By Pat Hawker, D.E. Cole
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Extra resources for Amateur Radio Techniques
Variants of this architecture include one that has two down-conversion stages, and another with no mixing that relies instead on direct conversion of the receive signal using a subsampling ADC. In the transmit path, the architecture is reversed, with a DAC driven by the DSP chip that produces an information-bearing signal at the IF which is then frequency up-converted by a mixer, bandpass filtered, and amplified by what is called a power amplifier to generate the hundreds of milliwatts required.
In reality, there would be hundreds or thousands of RF cycles for each cycle of the baseband signal so that the frequency of the baseband signal would have frequency components which are a tiny fraction of the frequency of the carrier. With AM (Figure 1-4(c)), the amplitude of the carrier is modulated, and this results in a broadening of the spectrum of the carrier, as shown in Figure 1-4(c)(ii). This spectrum contains the original carrier component and upper and lower sidebands designated as U and L, respectively.
However, this is still very good, so one of the fundamental advantages of this modulation scheme is that nonlinear, power-efficient amplification can be used. GMSK is essentially a digital implementation of FM with a binary change in the frequency of modulation. The switch from one modulation frequency to the other is timed to occur at zero phase. Put another way, the input bitstream is shaped to form half sinusoids for each 31 32 MICROWAVE AND RF DESIGN: A SYSTEMS APPROACH Q 01 Q 01 00 a Q 00 01 00 a b I 10 11 01 a 00 I b 10 c 10 d 01 11 e 10 I c 10 11 10 Q 01 Q 00 01 00 d I I e 11 Figure 1-24 10 11 10 Constellation diagram of OQPSK modulation for the bit sequence 010010100110.