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By Kurt von Mettenheim, Olivier Butzbach

The hot banking concern has introduced into query the enterprise version utilized by so much huge banks. This selection of essays explores the luck of ‘alternative banks’ – discounts banks, cooperative banks and improvement banks, utilizing case experiences from around the globe and dialogue of either the old and theoretical context of banking practices.

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3: Evolution of German credit cooperatives, 1860–1920, in million marks. Year Number Members Assets 1860 133 31,603 1865 498 169,595 66 1870 740 314,656 187 1875 815 418,251 432 1880 905 460,656 493 1885 896 458,080 544 1890 1,072 518,003 620 1895 1,068 525,748 666 Credit 61 166 390 438 467 538 569 InterSavings bank Member deposits deposits balance Reserves 7 1 0 53 13 1 131 7 40 4 317 13 84 8 353 11 102 16 390 12 108 22 438 16 117 28 454 13 126 38 20 Alternative Banking and Financial Crisis Year Number Members 1900 870 511,061 1905 921 539,993 1910 939 600,387 1915 941 601,395 1920 1,245 746,058 Assets 806 1,109 1,477 1,754 7,158 Credit 672 899 1,202 1,212 4,026 InterSavings bank Member deposits deposits balance Reserves 586 24 133 45 836 23 166 66 1,084 31 216 94 1,319 23 231 121 6,480 391 164 Source: Deutsche Bundesbank, Deutsches Geld- und Bankwesen in Zahlen 1876–1975 (Frankfurt: Deutsche Bundesbank, 1976), pp.

To date, most research in this approach of new institutionalism has focused on firms, not banks. Nonetheless, concepts and theories about institutional foundations and firms help explain how savings banks, cooperative banks and special purpose banks have realized competitive advantages over private banks. Because of the greater trust of clients, consumers and depositors, alternative banks are able to manage liability risk and avert runs on deposits better 14 Alternative Banking and Financial Crisis than private banks.

37 Postal savings bank losses were explained by members of a Parliamentary Commission and observers as a mismatch of returns from investments in government bonds (imposed on the bank by Prime Ministers without parliamentary approval). Moreover, removal of a cap on the size of deposits in 1893 produced an influx of large deposits that increased liquidity risk. 39 Balance sheets further deteriorated when government bonds paid less. Benchmark UK consol bonds had for some time paid 3 per cent interest.

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