Download Access: How Do Good Health Technologies Get to Poor People by Laura Frost, Michael R. Reich, Tadataka Yamada, Beth Anne PDF

By Laura Frost, Michael R. Reich, Tadataka Yamada, Beth Anne Pratt, Alan Fenwick, Howard Thompson

many of us in constructing nations lack entry to overall healthiness applied sciences, even simple ones. Why do those difficulties in entry persist? What may be performed to enhance entry to reliable wellbeing and fitness applied sciences, particularly for negative humans in bad nations?

This e-book solutions these questions by means of constructing a complete analytical framework for entry and studying six case stories to give an explanation for why a few well-being applied sciences accomplished extra entry than others. The applied sciences comprise praziquantel (for the therapy of schistosomiasis), hepatitis B vaccine, malaria fast diagnostic assessments, vaccine vial screens for temperature publicity, the Norplant implant contraceptive, and feminine condoms. in response to study experiences commissioned by way of the invoice & Melinda Gates origin to raised comprehend the advance, adoption, and uptake of healthiness applied sciences in bad nations, the booklet concludes with particular classes on options to enhance entry. those classes should be of willing curiosity to scholars of wellbeing and fitness and improvement, public wellbeing and fitness execs, and health and wellbeing expertise developers—all who search to enhance entry to future health applied sciences in bad nations.

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Additional resources for Access: How Do Good Health Technologies Get to Poor People in Poor Countries? (Harvard Series on Population and International Health)

Example text

AVAILABILITY involves the logistics of making, ordering, shipping, storing, distributing, and delivering a new health technology to ensure it reaches the hands (or mouth) of the end-user. Manufacturing The processing of raw materials into finished products for use or sale. Forecasting The assessment of how much of a product is likely to be purchased and used, and at what price. Procurement The process of purchasing health technologies from private or public suppliers and includes all decisions related to the specific quantities obtained, prices paid, and the quality of health technologies received.

For pharmaceuticals, manufacturing typically involves two major steps. First is primary manufacturing, the production of active ingredients, which often occurs in developed countries. Next is secondary manufacturing, which entails formulation of the final product. This is usually a less complicated technical process than the production of the active ingredient. However, formulation can be complicated for certain types of pharmaceutical products, such as vaccines, many biological agents (including genetically engineered medicines), and time-release medicines.

At least three arenas of activity are relevant here. First, political commitment has been shown repeatedly to be a key factor for the success of health technology access. 31 Second, registration of the technology is often required by national regulatory authorities and has in some cases been a reason for delay of product introduction. Registration involves standard procedures to examine the quality, safety, and efficacy of health technologies, and provider and patient information. The process depends in large part on a nation’s regulatory authority policies and market incentives but also on various market imperfections that can slow down the process of regulatory approval.

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