By Ernest Drucker
Whilst Dr. John Snow first traced a virulent disease of cholera to a water pump within the Soho district of London in 1854, the sphere of epidemiology was once born. Taking a similar public healthiness methods and instruments that experience effectively tracked epidemics of flu, tuberculosis, and AIDS over the intervening 100 and fifty years, Ernest Drucker makes the case that our present unparalleled point of imprisonment has develop into an epidemic—a plague upon our physique politic.
Drucker, an the world over famous public overall healthiness student and Soros Justice Fellow, spent two decades treating drug habit and one other twenty learning AIDS in a few of the poorest neighborhoods of the South Bronx and around the world. He
compares mass incarceration to different, well-recognized epidemics utilizing uncomplicated public well-being thoughts: “prevalence and incidence,” “outbreaks,” “contagion,” “transmission,” and “potential years of existence lost.”
He argues that imprisonment—originally conceived as a reaction to individuals’ crimes—has turn into mass incarceration: a destabilizing strength that undermines the households and groups it pursuits, destructive the very social buildings that hinder crime.
Sure to impress debate, this publication shifts the paradigm of the way we predict approximately punishment by way of demonstrating that our unheard of charges of incarceration have the contagious and self-perpetuating positive aspects of the plagues of earlier centuries.
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Additional resources for A Plague of Prisons: The Epidemiology of Mass Incarceration in America
Standardization is carried out by comparing the population of interest to a ‘standard population’ for which the age structure (population numbers in each age band) and age-specific rates are known. This can be any population, for example, a larger population of which the population of interest is a part, the combination of two populations that are being compared, or simply another population chosen by the investigator. Direct standardization Direct standardization can be carried out when the age-specific rates of the population under study are known.
It estimates the proportion of disease that might be prevented if the risk factor were removed. Population attributable risk fraction = Incidence in the whole population − Incidence in the non-exposed population . Incidence in the whole population The population attributable risk fraction can be used to estimate the benefit of a proposed intervention, such as the number of lung cancer deaths that could be prevented by introducing a smoking reduction programme in a large population. g. selection bias).
This is defined as the ‘population at risk’. Also note that, like prevalence, this measure is a proportion and is dimensionless. However, because cumulative incidence will increase over time, the time period over which it is measured must be clearly stated. 25 or 25% in that year in that group. Odds Another way of measuring incidence is to calculate the odds of disease, injury or death. Rather than using the number of disease-free people at the beginning of the time period, odds are calculated by using the number of disease-free people at the end of the specified time: Odds of disease = Number of new cases with disease in a specified time period Number of people who were still disease-free by the end of the time period .