By Alessandro Boselli
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–13):
Chapter 2 X?Ray (pages 17–23):
Chapter three UV?Optical?NIR (pages 25–40):
Chapter four The Infrared (pages 41–49):
Chapter five Millimeter and Centimeter Radio (pages 51–57):
Chapter 6 homes of the new X?Ray Emitting fuel (pages 61–62):
Chapter 7 airborne dirt and dust houses (pages 63–69):
Chapter eight Radio homes (pages 71–75):
Chapter nine The Spectral strength Distribution (pages 77–90):
Chapter 10 Spectral gains (pages 91–106):
Chapter eleven gasoline houses (pages 107–123):
Chapter 12 airborne dirt and dust Extinction (pages 125–142):
Chapter thirteen megastar Formation Tracers (pages 143–159):
Chapter 14 gentle Profiles and Structural Parameters (pages 161–170):
Chapter 15 Stellar and Dynamical plenty (pages 171–191):
Chapter sixteen Statistical instruments (pages 195–213):
Chapter 17 Scaling kin (pages 215–233):
Chapter 18 topic Cycle in Galaxies (pages 235–243):
Chapter 19 The position of our surroundings on Galaxy Evolution (pages 245–254):
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Extra resources for A Panchromatic View of Galaxies
7). 2. 2 Emission Lines The radio domain includes several of the most important lines necessary for the study of galaxy evolution. 6 mm is used to determine the molecular hydrogen content. 25 , the higher level CO transition lines such as 12 CO(3 2) fall into the millimeter bands for high-redshift objects, and the 12 CO(1 0) line becomes observable at high frequencies with centimeter radio telescopes such as the VLA. The importance of these lines resides in the fact that they trace the gaseous component which feeds star formation.
They are present in ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) dominated by starburst activity, in particular those with cold dust temperatures, while their emission is very weak in systems dominated by a central AGN. The PAH emission of LINERs is intermediate, between that of AGNs and starburst galaxies [108–110]. 2 Cooling Lines in PDR The ISM provides the gas reservoir to feed star formation in galaxies. Atomic hydrogen, originating from the primordial nucleosynthesis, has to ﬁrst cool down to collapse in molecular clouds to form stars.
The interstellar medium is generally optically thick to the Lyman resonance lines of HI. Thus Lyman line photons are converted to a lower-series photon and a lower member of the Lyman series, producing the aforementioned cascade . 1 (from ). The intensity of the recombination lines is proportional to the ionization rate, which in turns depends on the luminosity of the exciting source. The relative intensity of hydrogen recombination lines depends only weakly on the temperature and only marginally on density for densities such as those measured in the interstellar medium.