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By Warren D. TenHouten

Founded upon the psychoevolutionary theories of Darwin, Plutchik and Izard, a basic socioevolutionary thought of the feelings - affect-spectrum concept - classifies a large spectrum of the sentiments and analyzes them at the sociological, mental and neurobiological levels.

This neurocognitive sociology of the sentiments supersedes the foremost theoretical views built within the sociology of feelings via displaying basic feelings to be adaptive reactions to basic difficulties of lifestyles that have developed into simple social relationships and that may are expecting occurrences of the total spectrum of fundamental, advanced secondary, and tertiary emotions.

Written by way of major social theorist Warren D. TenHouten, this e-book offers an encyclopaedic category of the sentiments, describing forty-six feelings intimately, and featuring a normal multilevel idea of feelings and social lifestyles. The scope of assurance of this key paintings is extremely topical and complete, and contains the advance of feelings in youth, symbolic elaboration of advanced feelings, feelings administration, violence, and cultural and gender modifications. whereas basic feelings have essentially outlined valences, this concept indicates that complicated feelings obey no algebraic legislation and that every one feelings have either artistic and damaging potentialities.


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Further, both involve the self: fear is triggered by a threat to the self; sadness, by a loss to the self (Oatley and Jenkins 1996: 101). In disgust, the defining function is rejection and the defining cause is recognition of the need to reject what is in the environment, or to recognize that one has been rejected, or treated as disgusting by others, a potential loss of social identity. But this is not disgust itself, rather a further reaction to move away from what is disgusting. Physically disgusting things are usually dealt with very naturally by averting one’s gaze or turning away one’s nose; by removing oneself from an unclean, contaminated, disgusting object or place.

2 shows various terms referring to level of intensity for each of the eight primary emotions. 3. The leftmost column lists the four problems of life. 2 Descriptive terms for each of the eight primary emotions, arrayed by increasing levels of intensity Primary emotions Descriptive termsa (from lowest to highest intensity) Protection Destruction Reproduction Reintegration Incorporation Rejection Exploration Orientation timidity, wariness, apprehension, fear, fright, terror annoyance, irritation, exasperation, anger, rage, fury serenity, cheerfulness, happiness, joy, elation pensiveness, gloominess, dejection, sadness, grief acceptance, liking, respect, adoration, worship dislike, disgust, revulsion, loathing mindfulness, inquisitiveness, anticipation, fascination close-attention surprise astonishment amazement Note a The selected terms deviate considerably from various selections by Plutchik, who includes many terms that would much better fit, and in certain cases even define, certain secondary emotions.

This “mouth” becomes the dominant symbol in all hate (“and appetite . . ”). (Holbrook 1972: 37, 25, emphasis in original) The frustrated and hungry infant seeks not to destroy the breast but to possess it (Guntrip 1961: 342). If the child does not experience acceptance and love in the earliest stages of life, he or she will feel rejected, and will be filled with a fear that love itself is harmful. : 11–12). Thus, we might expect that pathology in nurturance of the infant and a lack of love shown to the child eventually leads to a desire to consume and empty others.

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